Bringing Democracy to the Citizen

Observatory of Democracy and Political Representation

In a quality liberal and representative democracy, a fundamental axiom is that public policies reflect the will of at least the majority of voters.

Da Austeridade à Pandemia

In the last decade, Portugal and Europe have faced profound economic and social crises, impacting the political landscape of many countries affected by the long-term effects of the 2008 financial crisis, austerity measures (the Great Recession), and more recently, the COVID-19 pandemic crisis and its social and political effects.

To discuss the consequences of the Great Recession and the COVID-19 pandemic and attempt to find answers to these issues through the inclusion of various disciplinary perspectives (particularly political science, public policy, social work, and sociology), especially regarding social and political innovations, members of the ‘Politics and Citizenship’ research group at CIES-Iscte were invited to a conference held at Iscte – Lisbon University Institute on June 17 and 18, 2021, and subsequently, to contribute to the elaboration of this book.

This book is fully written in Portuguese.




Democratic political representation concerns the incorporation of citizenship into the political process and political decision-making, referring to the link between voters, elected officials and the production and implementation of public policies.

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Observatory Team